- Jul 7, 2014
- Reaction score
- United Kingdom
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- Gitup F1+G3ꞈꞈꞈꞈꞈ Viofo A139ꞈꞈꞈꞈꞈ Blueskysea B4K+B2K
Most of the CO2 from concrete is from the chemistry of its manufacture, not from the energy. Yes, concrete is a major source of CO2, and dams can't be made without huge amounts of it.All that concrete it take to build a dam, consume massive amounts of power, most often in the form of oil or gas to make the heats needed to make the concrete, the single largest Co2 emitter here in Denmark is the Aalborg portland cement factory.
Which I think is why hydro power is rated by the IPCC at 24 gCO2eq/kWh compared to wind power at 11, and wind is significantly improving that figure while hydro is not. Any hydro that requires a dam is very harmful to the local environment, and often human life too when villages get flooded. Hydro that doesn't require a dam is generally insignificant in its power output, with just a few exceptions.
I think that is probably a false figure too, just because a "turbine" is shipped from Esbjerg doesn't mean that the base, tower, or blades are!FYI 75% of all offshore wind equipment in the world are shipped from Esbjerg port in Denmark, on a good day 50 trucks arrive at the port with various wind turbine parts.
Of course it is not, probably much safer than animal waste since human food is much more strictly regulated!Human sewage waste being spread on crops in the UK sounds like a very risky practice, especially because it includes these solids (poop and many harmful contaminants). Human urine used alone is different because it can be pasteurized
However the waste is not spread on land as raw sewage, it first goes through anaerobic digesters which break down most nasty chemicals and release the energy for heat and power, a significant contributor to the national power grid, then there are rules for how it is used on the land, which ensure it does not get back into the food chain until it has had time to fully biodegrade. The only real concern at the moment is from microplastics, but they are everywhere anyway!
Simply pasteurizing human urine and spraying it on food doesn't sound very nice, pasteurized milk still goes bad given a bit of time!